Snapshots of a Daughter in Law: Adrienne Rich

Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law by Adrienne Rich is a poem which features a scattered time-line and multiple subjects. These varying points of view branch from an aged mother-in-law, a young daughter, and more abstract subjects. These seemingly disjointed viewpoints and segments are arranged in a way which provides the reader a cohesive story of an individual opposing an existing patriarchal society and embracing feminism.

Although Rich presents the story in a way that makes it seem as though the reader is the main subject, “You were once a belle in Shreveport…” (568) the story actually follows the daughter of the older woman. A younger character, easily linked to new schools of thought that may directly or indirectly oppose established order, serves as a more relatable avatar for readers. Rich appears to be encouraging people to take up the mantle of feminism in this work, and providing a revolutionary young of age protagonist may more easily reach the type of reader she hopes to reach.

With this in mind, it is understood that the development of the main character, and thus the development of the thematic idea, begins at the end of the first section, labeled 1. The line, “Nervy, glowering, your daughter/wipes the teaspoons, grows another way.” (570) shows Rich utilizing powerful vocabulary, specifically the word ‘glowering’, to signify a discontent towards a specific entity. In this case it is the daughter’s discontent towards her mother-in-law. This displeasure towards an existing system is what begins the character’s development arc and thus the development of the poem’s message.

A great amount of conflict is introduced in section 3, continuing the idea of opposition between an existing system and a younger entity. The first stanza of this section presents images of stately household items and aged flora, objects which draw to mind established wealth and ‘old-money’. Particularly the ‘steamer-trunk of tempora and mores” (569). Both the object, a steamer trunk, and the latin words for times and customs, are representative of aged institutions. The second stanza shows a rebellion against that, when two women are locked in argument. This stanza shows violent imagery of knives thrust into backs, and the two participants are described as Furies of ancient greek lore. Also, old imagery is scattered throughout the second stanza. adjective such as ‘rusted’ and ‘old’ are used to describe objects, and the use of ancient Greek mythology lends an old and powerful air to the stanza.

Section 6 can be viewed as the fear and hesitation that may be faced upon the journey that Rich is describing. The second stanza of the section compares the main character to a bird in a cage, “Poised, trembling and unsatisfied, before/an unlocked door, that cage of cages,/

tell us, you bird…”(570). This comparison casts the main character in a timid light.Vocabulary such as ‘trembling’ and specifying that the door is unlocked, that the only thing preventing the bird from freedom is the bird’s desire or capabilities, carries the air of a challenge. Rich uses section 6 to construct a ‘call to action’ for the main character. A series of questions at the end of the stanza seem to serve as a method of egging on of the main character, questioning if she would be worthy of the opportunities she is considering fighting for. This self-doubt as well as jeering challenge serves to demonstrate the importance of being absolute in one’s convictions. Rich hopes to demonstrate that it would be useless to take up the challenge if one lacks certainty.

The end of the poem, section 10, shows the culmination of all the efforts and challenges that have been faced in the earlier stanzas, and concludes our character’s development. The reader is given images of a majestic figure, strong action words which provoke thoughts of battle, and a final stanza that gives a sense of community to the struggle of the poem’s main character. The lines, “Well,/she’s long about her coming, who must be more merciless to herself than history.” grants the reader an image of a powerful woman, and stands in strong juxtaposition to descriptions presented at the beginning of the poem, such as a woman whose mind molds away like cake. Also the lines, “I see her plunge/… her fine blades making the air wince.” (572) show an individual who is imbued with a will to fight for themselves and their own standing in the world. This line can also be contrasted with the beginning of the poem, where our main character is shown wiping teaspoons and performing household chores. This drastic change from servant to warrior encapsulates the message of the poem, one must be willing to struggle for equality, especially against great forces. The final stanza, “but her cargo/no promise then:/ delivered/palpable/ours.” (572) conveys the message that the struggles experienced by our main character are indicative of the struggles faced by women in general, linking ‘her’ (the main character’s) to ‘ours’ (being those Rich shares a gender commonality with). This linkage serves as an ultimatum of sorts from Rich to her readership, seemingly stating that it is a common struggle, and that the efforts of one can help the situation of all.

There is little doubt that Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law carries with it themes of feminism, and discusses issues faced by a woman living in a patriarchal society. However, where one may see only a disjointed and unorganized view of many facets and schools of thought often associated with feminism, there is actually a cohesive and overarching plot which details challenges, expectations, and explanations of what one may do to become a feminist.


Creative Process

It all starts with an idea. Maybe a short phrase, combination of words, a visualization of some lines on a page. It could be bigger picture, it could be a title or a color combination. The idea is spontaneous! Maybe it comes in the middle of a lecture or on a lazy weekend, just before settling down for the night. The idea is the romantic part, the exciting part, and the part that everyone day dreams of. A flash of inspiration, striking through a cloud of other miscellaneous thoughts. Something that HAS to be put down immediately, for fear of forgetting it.

After the joy of inspiration comes the reality of creation. Putting the pen to the paper or the brush to the canvas. People like to inject a romantic sense into this part of the process as well. The vision of the suffering artist, alone in the studio, standing before some unfinished piece. Playing some instrument and screwing up the tone over and over until it’s done correctly. I think this is the section that draws reverence from people. Everyone has had that stroke of genius, where they came up with some idea or plan that would change the world, or at least the neighborhood. But people who have followed through? Those people are the heroes. At least to some individuals.

The movements of creation can also carry the form of rituals and standard processes. Everyone has their favorite musician to listen to, candles to burn, rites to perform. It’s a personal journey for a lot of people, and their secret to turning out something they are proud of is known to them and them alone.

There is one truth to a lot of creativity. The one step that is the most impossible to overcome. The act of creating daily. Cutting through all the secrets and rituals, and the hushed whispers of secret tricks that produce awe-inspiring works, is the hard fact of repetition and consistency.

So write every day. And draw every day. Read every day. Whatever you want to be great at, do it every day.

Making an Issue

Crafting a magazine, like many other things, is best described in analogies. Electing leaders, choosing stories, arguing the merits and demerits of work that strangers (and your peers) have offered for consideration. It’s all like sculpting, or building a house. It’s like sweeping out a garage.

The first day of the semester a person could feel the weight of the ideas and hopes their peers held for the magazine. Everyone brought with them their individual aspirations, and those aspirations had a tangible presence in the room. Expectations were high, and rightfully so. It’s a pleasure to be amongst a group of people who all share an identical end goal. A common desire for something that is important, and expertly crafted.

It is also a pleasure to debate the finer points of submissions, and reaching conclusions on inclusions. Not pleasure as in especially enjoyable, or pleasing, but rather a pleasure meant in the literary sense. The sense that any emotion inflicted upon a person is a pleasure – whether it be frustration or happiness or relief- is a pleasure. The conclusion of Steinbeck’s powerful Of Mice And Men leaves the reader saddened for the finality of things and frustrated for the fact that it may not have turned out a specific way, but still fulfilled, and still happy for they have learned from it. Making an issue of Mush is a pleasure in this way.

Final stages are things many don’t consider in the first few days. Filling out graphs, talking about your favorite lines from a poem or colors in a photo, those are fun. Those activities are, to use an analogy, summer days. Clear skies and chirping birds. Those are the first weeks. With crunch time comes details, and details are frustrating. But details create the parts a person can notice and appreciate. Details move a block of marble to David.


Morality in Huck Finn

Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a story filled with promises and friendships, both made and unmade throughout the course of the narrative. Mark Twain utilizes the relationships Huck forms, with a particular focus on Jim and the royal pair, as a device to highlight the development of the main character. Specifically, Huck creates and solidifies his own sense of morality through the instances of loyalty and treachery he encounters on his travels.​

At the beginning of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn the titular character is depicted as a boy with common sense but lacking a strong moral compass. It is important to note that Huck is not as dreadful as the character Pap, and at the same time is not as rigorous in his ways as his foster parentage, Miss Watson or the widow. It’s the gray area between these two poles in which the reader meets Huck. It is not until Huck meets Jim and begins his journey down the river that the reader begins to observe Huck developing his own sense of priorities and morals.

The companionship and kindness shared between Jim and Huck provides a strong foundation off of which Huck begins to build his own ideas of right and wrong. An early instance of this loyalty to one another impacting Huck takes place after the pair reconvene, following a bout of fog, “It was fifteen minutes before I could work myself up to go and humble myself… and I warn’t ever sorry for it afterwards, neither… I wouldn’t done that one if I’d a knowed it would make him feel that way.” (183) It is clearly displayed here that the connection between Jim and Huck resulted in Huck feeling compassion and guilt, thus realizing the value of friendship (or at least beginning to). Most important is that Huck makes this connection on his own. Jim scolds Huck for hurting him, but rather than brush it off as he would a sermon from Miss Watson or jibe from Tom Sawyer, Huck vows to never hurt him again.

But while the nurturing heart of Jim demonstrates a kind nature to Huck, it is necessary for a crucible of sorts to truly solidify Huckleberry’s morals and beliefs. This crucible comes in the form of the lost King and Duke. This vagabond pair engages in cheating behavior which, with each occurrence, sours Huck’s disposition towards the lifestyle. The most vivid example of their behavior comes when the pair poses as the family of a deceased, wealthy individual in order to rob them of the deceased’s assets. Huck takes great issue with this, “I says to myself, this is a girl that I’m letting that old reptle rob her of her money!… And this is another one…”(238). It is at this point in their adventure that Huck recognizes the repercussions of such treacherous living, and is visibly disgusted by it. Huck goes so far as to say that the perpetrator of the act is less than human. It is nearing the end of Huck’s interactions with the pair of royalty that he grows into who he may be, morally speaking, for the rest of his life.

The finale of the story also gives us the finale of Huck’s moral development. The ‘strength of his steel’, so to speak, is tested upon Jim’s capture at the hands of the King and the Phelps family. Huck determines that he has been granted an opportunity for salvation, going so far as to say that “Providence had slapped him in the face” (261) if he were to send a letter to Miss Watson and turn Jim in. However, after a brief reflection of his journey with Jim, Huck comes to realize his own stance on the issue and acts for himself, dramatically asserting, “All right, then, I’ll go  to hell” (262). No other moment so clearly defines Huckleberry’s development than this one as it involves a decision he knows to be legally wrong as well as conflicts with the beliefs Miss Watson attempted to instill in him. It’s a choice made in contradiction to his teachings and upbringing but in line with his own personal morality. The decision to spring Jim, and thus become an out-and-out guilty accomplice to a runaway slave, is one Huck makes because Huck believes that it is the right thing to do.

The story Mark Twain has crafted contains a host of messages and interpretations. The points I have argued are far from the only message of the novel and even farther from the only purpose Jim and the royal pair serve. Despite this, I believe Mark Twain wrote these characters and these situations in an effort to display the importance of development of self and realizing one’s own priorities. Through the interactions shared between Huck, Jim, the king and the duke, the reader not only observes Huck’s decisions and internal monologue evolve throughout the story but the reader, too, is invited to reflect on the occurrences.

The final final deadline is approaching. One day away, to be exact. This is the third submission window of the 2015 edition of Mush Magazine, and the extra time has served us wonderfully. The amount of submissions allows for great debate amongst the team.

I’d like to take this opportunity to explain the method with which the Mush team narrows down our submission pool. It’s a largely democratic process, involving a tally of votes of all the editors. These totals are then used to influence discussion and, at times, argument about the merits of a piece, and whether or not it should have a higher score. After months of debate specifically appointed prose, poetry and art editors compile the top vote getting pieces into a packet for further review, which spawns even more weeks of conversation on the submissions.

This is where we will find ourselves following the closing of the submission window. Just a few months from publishing the results of not just the staff’s hard work, but also the students. We are eager to see the results!

Continuation of Submissions

Hey, readers!

The Mush staff has been hard at work narrowing, editing, and responding to as many individuals as we possibly could. The entire crew is putting in the necessary effort to bring forth the quality that is expected of our favorite literary magazine.

In this spirit we would like to remind everyone that the submission deadline has been pushed back to allow for more individuals to send us their works! Remember, we allow a wide variety of mediums! Short stories, artwork, photographs, poems. If you can create it, you can submit it.

Thank you, from the Mush crew!


Hello all Mush followers!

The editorial staff is excited to once again get together for continued efforts on this year’s edition of Mush! We are lucky to welcome two new faces to this semester’s class and are eager to see the value they will no doubt bring to our dedicated team. The group has picked up right where we left off at the conclusion of last semester, reviewing the campus’s wonderful submissions and making the tough calls of what to include and what must be cut.

The staff is also excited to announce a deadline extension to the submission window! We wanted to give all students ample time to create and refine their works, and we are doing so by allowing all students of the MC or the NTC to submit works up to and including February 20th! That’s right, you have roughly one more month to get those works in.

Get crackin’, students. We’re looking forward to what you create!